This study, carried out for the National Commission for the Evaluation of Innovation Policies (CNEPI), chaired by France strategy, proposes a macroeconomic assessment of the strengthening of the French R&D tax credit system after 2007. What is the value created and therefore the rate of return for the community and the public authorities of the funds invested? How many jobs has the R&D tax credit system created in research and other economic activities? How has it strengthened the competitiveness of French companies and contributed to improving the external balance of France? It is to the answer to all these questions, with the support of the NEMESIS model, that this study is devoted.